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Cadaver dogs, historians search for the dead at Hayes’ Station in Laurens County

REMEMBRANCE – Beyond the Hayes’ Station monument in eastern Laurens County, brothers Clayton and Kevin Broome of Spartanburg find many signals of iron, possibly from what had been the stage coach station and blacksmith shop during the Revolutionary War. Photo by Judith Brown

Laurens County, South Carolina – Searchers with metal detectors and handlers of cadaver search dogs trained in historical human decay searches were in eastern Laurens County Saturday afternoon, searching for evidence of two mass graves which hold the bodies of militia members slaughtered in 1781 by the notorious “Bloody Bill” Cunningham.

A monument donated in 1910 by the Daughters of the American Revolution includes the names of most of the 18 militia men killed on Nov. 19, 1781, a full month after the final battle of Yorktown essentially had ended the Revolutionary War.

It’s the second monument to mark the site of Hayes’ Station and is on private property. The first monument was made from marble and had been shattered sometime after it was built in the 1850s, said Durant Ashmore, a Revolutionary War historian from Fountain Inn. Ashmore is trying to find the specific locations of the former stagecoach stop, the blacksmith shop and the unmarked graves which were used for the remains of the militia members after they were hacked to death and dismembered by Cunningham and some of his 300 Loyalist followers.

Cunningham and his men forged a path of vengeance and destruction in what is now the South Carolina Midlands and the Upstate, in spite of the fact that Cunningham had been raised in or very near the Little River District and would have known many of the men.

Durant Ashmore at Hayes’ Station. Photo by Judith Brown

“These militia men were the cream of the crop for Little River District,” Ashmore said of the commander and militia men killed at Hayes’ Station.

They included the leader, Col. Joseph Hayes, who had replaced Col. James Williams after his death at the Battle of King’s Mountain. Williams’ two sons were prime targets for Cunningham, and he hung Daniel, 18, along with Col. Hayes. Daniel’s younger brother, Joseph Williams, 14, was viciously killed by Cunningham. Three of those killed were Irbys, and many of them likely still have family in the area today, Ashmore said. Another militiaman was 16, so the group included three teenagers.

“The story was told that the youngest, Joseph Williams, was distraught about his brother’s death, and said, ‘But how will I tell my mother?’ And Cunningham said, ‘I’ll save you the trouble,’ and ran him through with his sword,” Ashmore said. “He was a terrible person.”

According to Ashmore, Cunningham went into a rage when a pole broke while attempting to hang more of the militia, so he began killing the rest, who were still tied together, with his sword.

Beau, trained to search even generations-old human cadaver scents, travels ahead of handler Nancy Jocoy of Simpsonville near the site of the Hayes’ Station massacre. Photo by Judith Brown

“They had already pardoned two of the men, so there were people seeing this to tell about it,” Ashmore said. “He slaughtered them and when he got tired, he ordered his men to continue, so the men were dismembered,” Ashmore said.

After the massacre, a few family members attempted to take bodies of some of the militia men home to bury them, but the remainder were placed in two different graves, and that’s why the South Carolina Search and  Rescue Dogs Association were brought to assist in the search.

Some of the dogs are trained specifically to search for the missing, so they are trained to track smells of living humans, said Marion Tisdale, who has a living search dog. However, dogs trained for historical searches, such as for historical cemeteries, are trained using smells of human decay.

Nancy Jocoy of Simpsonville has taken her dog, Beau, to trainings where the animals are certified using bones as old as 700 years.

With his handler nearby, Beau struggles to pin down the location of the scents of human remains at Hayes’ Station. The volunteers plan to return this summer in early morning hours which are more conducive to the dogs’ work. Photo by Judith Brown

Beau became very interested in two different locations, and other volunteers with her recorded them via the GPS monitors the dogs wear.

“I’ll be sending in a full report which includes GPS markers for everywhere Beau traveled, where he stopped and where he returned,” Jocoy said.

At one point Beau not only stopped and looked at his handler, but also lay down on the spot, then got up and began digging. She made him stop.

“This is a search, not an excavation,” Jocoy said.

The Search and Rescue volunteers and metal detector volunteers will likely return this summer with an archeologist to get another look, and preferably early in the day.

“The smells rise early in the morning,” Jocoy said, adding that’s when the dogs can best pick up specific smells and locations.

Volunteers with the S.C. Search and Rescue Dogs Association plan to return this summer. Photo by Judith Brown

Ashmore plans to return with an archeologist and they’ll use the reports from this weekend to narrow down areas.

It’s important, Ashmore said, because the men need to be honored.

“These were men from the best families in Little River District,” Ashmore said. “They were respected and looked up to when they were alive, and they need to be honored in their death.”


  1. Ron Saxon on February 27, 2021 at 5:47 pm

    Very interesting. I’m not sure when my Saxons came to Laurens Co. but it was a long time ago. I believe I’m related to Samuel Saxon. Very interesting to me. Thank you

  2. James Irby on April 29, 2021 at 2:57 pm

    As one of many descendants of the Irby’s killed at Hayes’ Station, and member of the Sons of the American Revolution, I am very excited to see this news and will certainly travel to be a part of anything that should come of this. Like many of this country, our ancestors paid the price for the freedoms so many squander today. Thank you South Carolina.

    • Lisa Gilmore on May 7, 2021 at 10:27 pm

      I am descendent of Lt. Clement Hancock in Texas and this so exciting. Would love for y’all to make a facebook page so we can follow the progress.

      • Patricia Ann Howe on June 11, 2021 at 2:52 pm

        Hello distant Cousin. I too am a descendent of Lt Hancock. Would love to compare sources and trees with you!

        • Kaye Sass on December 13, 2021 at 8:21 am

          This terrible man may have been a relative of my Cunningham line. I descend from another male Cunningham from this same area in SC. I hope they find the remains and try to identify. 🙏

  3. Greg Perry on July 7, 2021 at 9:43 pm

    I am a descendant of Benjamin Goodman who was also killed at Hayes Station and name is on the memorial stone. This story is very interesting and cannot imagine what these guys went through.

  4. Sherry Caven on July 12, 2021 at 4:10 pm

    Benjamin Goodman was the brother of my great-great grandfather.
    Another of my ancestors was Laughlin Leonard (my 5th ggrandfather), whose name isn’t on the monument
    but has appeared in several other accounts of the massacre. The family story is that his wife
    (Mary Golding Leonard) came with a wagon to take his body back home for burial.
    I am looking forward to the November lecture!!

    • Donna Hardin on September 22, 2021 at 12:03 pm

      One of my early Grandfathers, Christopher Hardy, name is on the monument. I would love to follow this story and travel to the site. Thank you for any updates!

      • Bethany on September 29, 2021 at 10:14 am

        I am also a descendant of Lt. Hardy, hey cuz!

        • Donna Hardin on October 29, 2021 at 6:26 pm

          Hello Bethany! I also found that Christopher Hardy has a marker at a church about a 35 minute drive from the Hayes Station area. I found his marker at the Chestnut Ridge Baptist Church 499 Chestnut Ridge Rd Laurens SC a few weeks ago.

          • Judith Brown (reporter) on November 1, 2021 at 1:45 pm

            LCAdvertiser — At the time of this story Durant Ashmore said that a few families of men killed there came and attempted to take their remains back home for burial, but most entombed somewhere on the property near the marker.

  5. Regina Sass on August 5, 2021 at 5:31 pm

    My Cunningham and Williams families moved to NW Alabama. They all came from this area of SC. Haven’t been able to connect to Bloody Bill Cunningham yet. What a sad history. I look forward to hearing what is found.

    • Deloris Pyles on March 21, 2022 at 7:36 am

      Hi! I am not related to any of the soldiers by blood, but I grew up on and still live on Williams Rd, right next to Hayes Station and as a child growing up was taught and heard all about Bloody Bill Cunningham in fact when they started naming the 911 roads we were asked to name the road after him, but no! We were not having that from such a cruel person. My siblings and I played at the monument , and actually played on the cement porch where a house stood and the well was still there. We also hunted for buried treasure and remember when military soldiers would parachute out of helicopters all around us who were very nice and it was also the first time we saw military food in cans. My families were Williams and Simmons who still live here today. There have also been people all the way from Yellowstone National Park to visit in bus loads. I am 67 now and I still share the monument with my kids and grandkids who are absolutely amazed.

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